OTHER SOFTWARE


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Updated 13 June 2017

This section contains links to non-Kenwood software packages that are either written specifically for the TS-590 Family or which support several rigs including the TS-590

Management/Control Software

 Title / LinkAuthor(s)Description
1DXLabDave Bernstein, AA6YQA suite of eight inter-operating applications: Transceiver Control, DX Info, Logging, Digimodes, QSL information, DX spots, Propagation, DXLab Management
2OmnirigAlex Shovkoplyas, VE3NEATransceiver CAT control
3Ham Radio Deluxe v5Simon Brown, G4ELIControl of most popular transceivers using a computer and serial interface. This was the final free version of HRD (v5.24.38) before Simon sold the rights to HRD Software LLC
4Ham Radio Deluxe v6HRD Software, LLCFurther development of HRD. (Not free)
5CATfixIan Wade, G3NRWHandles 1) IF filter switching when using split, 2) changing the “TX” CAT command to “TX1” when using the USB or ACC2 port, and 3) monitoring of in-line CAT commands and responses
6MemSet590Ian Wade, G3NRWA spreadsheet tool for managing TS-590 memories
7Audio590Ian Wade, G3NRWA utility to set up and manage audio equalizer profiles for different microphones, for different users sharing the same microphone, and digital applications
8KRS-590RT Systems Radio programming software for the Kenwood TS-590. Convenient programming of the memories and set menu options of your radio from your PC. This software is also designed for easy control of the radio. (Not free)
9TS-590 Memory Management SoftwareMarian Marencik, OM5MI

Logging Software

 Title / LinkAuthor(s)Description
TO FOLLOW


SDR Software

 Title / LinkAuthor(s)Description
TO FOLLOW

Digital Communications Software

*** NEW ***  The whole of this section

 Title / LinkAuthor(s)Description
1AGWPEGeorge, SV2AGWPacket Engine is a special Windows utility for amateur radio packet users that interfaces multiple packet programs and multiple TNCs (Terminal Node Controllers) / modems. You can use any SoundCard as Dual Port TNC for Packet.

AGWTracker is an advanced APRS client program. You can use online maps from Google, Microsoft, OpenStreet, OVI. You can use almost any offline type of map from standard bitmaps to topo tiff and Garmin compatible.
2ALEAutomatic Link Establishment (ALE) is the de-facto worldwide standard for initiating and sustaining communications using High Frequency radio. HF radio conveys signals via ionospheric propagation, a constantly changing medium.

A network of amateur radio ALE operators has been on the air 24-7-365 worldwide for over 7 years, using interference- free Ham-Friendly ALE techniques.

With the capability to call up a specific HF station, a group of stations, a net, or a networked station, Automatic Link Establishment is a versatile system for connecting radio operators for voice, data, text, instant messaging, internet messaging, or image communications. A radio operator initiating a call, can within minutes have the ALE automatically pick the best frequency that both stations have. It then alerts both operators audibly and visually, so they can begin communicating with each other immediately.
3ARDopRick Muething, KN6KBThe ARDOP project is a joint development effort among amateur radio developers that seeks to provide a specification and implementation (software or hardware) for a modern versatile open digital protocol.

The initial ARDOP protocol is intended to operate in one of four audio bandwidths, 200 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, and 2000 Hz. The bandwidth can be forced by server, forced by client or negotiated by the server and client.

The protocol is intended to be able to operate over a wide range of data rate and robustness levels by automatically adapting to propagation and channel conditions, seeking the best modulation and bandwidth to maximize net error-free throughput.

ARQ (connected) operation insures error free data delivery between two connected stations. FEC (Forward Error Correction) may be used for broadcast (multicast) applications. The bandwidth, modulation mode and repeat level for FEC (multicast) operation is selectable to allow sender tradeoff of robustness and net throughput. Receiver reception requires no setup. Both FEC and ARQ transmission may be monitored by listening parties.

The protocol shall use modern techniques (low symbol rates, OFDM carrier cyclic prefix, 4FSK modulation, path compensation, strong FEC etc. to optimize performance under poor multipath conditions (path delay variation up to 5 ms).
4BPQ32John Wiseman, G8BPQBPQ is an AX25 Networking Package for Win32/Linux. It allows a computer running under Microsoft Windows® to act as a Node in a NET/ROM compatible AX25 network, and to support a multiuser Mailbox, or other similar applications. There is now a Linux version called LinBPQ. These documents apply to either version unless stated otherwise.

The switch section of the code allows up to 32 comms ports, supporting a number of radio protocols (see below for supported interfaces) and the application interface supports up to 64 connections.

The software includes an APRS compatible Digipeater and an interface to APRS/IS. A Mapping and Messaging application is available for use in conjunction with the these. The main interface to radios is via KISS mode TNCs connected to standard RS232 com ports.

Other interfaces are provided:
-- BPQtoAGW: This allows BPQ32 to use SV2AGW's AGW Packet Engine as a virtual TNC. This allows BPQ32 to interface via sound cards, or indeed any device supported by AGWPE.
-- BPQAXIP: Supports Node to node connections over the Internet using AX/IP or AX/UDP.
-- BPQETHER: Supports a connection over a local Ethernet to other BPQ (DOS or BPQ32) systems, or others supporting the BPQETHER protocol (eg Linux, NOS).
-- BPQVKISS: Provides a virtual KISS TNC via an emulated serial port. Allows applications written to talk to a KISS TNC (such as UI-View (16bit), G7JJF's WINTNC, WinAPRS) to use BPQ32.
-- SCSTracker: This allows BPQ32 to use SCS Tracker in Robust Packet or normal HF Packet Mode.
-- UZ7HO SoundModem: This allows BPQ32 to use the UZ7HO Sound Card Modem in Session mode.
5DBLogPino, ZP4KFXLinux logging program.
-- It allows to log QSOs, export a range of them in ADIF format, both in UTF-8 and in ISO-8859-1, and import from an ADIF file detecting automatically the encoding.
-- Can import LoTW and eQSL ADIF files to update confirmations.
-- It keeps statistics of DXCC worked countries in mixed mode.
-- It reads the VFO frequency via the hamlib daemon rigctld, so all radios supported by hamlib can be used.
-- It is integrated with fldigi. Fldigi can be started by DBLog.
-- Supports WEFAX mode of fldigi with a dedicated frequency table
and more
-- DBLog integrates with wsjt for EME or other weack signals modes
-- It includes a CW Keyer based on cwdaemon
-- DBLog works also as 'Log server': another program can send commands to DBLog via TCP on port 3164 to fill fields and to log QSOs.
-- Anybody can write other programs ( for digimodes, EME, Meteorscatter etc.) who log into the same log, without the need of been integrated into DBLog.
-- It is released in source code under the GNU GPL license, so anybody can modify it and improve it.
6DigiPanDigiPan stands for "Digital Panoramic Tuning" and brings the ease and simplicity of PANORAMIC reception and transmission to PSK31and PSK63 operation. DigiPan provides a panoramic display of the frequency spectrum in the form of an active dial scale extending the full width of the computer screen. Depending upon the transceiver IF bandwidth, it is possible to "see" as many as 40 to 50 PSK31 stations at one time. Low-cost transceiver kits for 10 meters, 20 meters, 30 meters, 40 meters, and 80 meters, the PSK-10, PSK-20, PSK-30, PSK-40, and Warbler (PSK-80), are available from Small WonderLabs that make full use of DigiPan's panoramic capabilities through the use of a 3000 Hz wideband IF.

DigiPan 2.0 again changes how PSK31 tuning is done!

All stations on the waterfall are now simultaneously decoded, and the callsign and text of each station is continuously shown on a separate multichannel display. CQ calls are instantly highlighted in color, and color alerts for any other two strings of text are also available. Since the callsign and text of each station is already known, instead of clicking on a signal to identify and contact a station, just clicking on the text or callsign of the desired station will transfer it to the active Receive area for a contact.
7Dire WolfWB2OSZDire Wolf is a software "soundcard" AX.25 packet modem/TNC and APRS encoder/decoder. It can be used stand-alone to observe APRS traffic, as a tracker, digipeater, APRStt gateway, or Internet Gateway (IGate).
8EasyPacketPavel Milanes Costa, CO7WTAutomatic configuration of soundmodem and ax25d for 1k2, 4k8 and 9k6 bauds, yes audio
-- TNC, no hardware TNC.
-- working and tested at 1k2 & 4k8 AFSK and 9k6 FSK with less than 15% of packet loss in
-- tcp/ip modes (4k8 & 9k6) and 0% in 1k2
-- full support of OSS. ALSA currently being tested
-- automatic detection of the correct sound card at bootup (ubuntu/debian swap the assignation of the interface on each bootup)
-- start modems as simple as "packeton 1k2" or "packeton 9k6"#
-- stop modems as simple as "packetoff"
-- deb packaged with dependences included
9EasyPalDigital SSTV
10FldigiDavid, W1HKJThe starting point for all Fldigi-related software. Programs include:

fldigi / flarq - current version fldigi 4.0.4, flarq 4.3.6
Fldigi On-line html Help
Sights & Sounds of Digital Modes
flamp - Amateur Multicast Protocol - file transfer program
flwrap - file encapsulation / compression
flmsg - Forms manager
flrig - rig control program, cooperates with fldigi
flwkey - modem program for the K1EL Winkeyer series
fllog - can use same data file as fldigi
flnet - voice net controller database / check-in application
kcat - Kachina 505DSP controller for Linux, Windows and OS X
kcts - Kachina 505 test suite for Linux, Windows and OS X
test suite - includes linsim, comptext and comptty
11Fldigi to Logger32 GatewayRick, N2AMGLogger32 Fldigi Gateway allows the program Fldigi v3.20.b1 or higher to interface with Logger32 and act as an almost drop-in replacement for Logger32 internal soundcard application
12Fldigi to DXLabs Gateway

Rick, N2AMGFldigi-DXLabs Gateway is a bridging application for use with the Digital Modes application
Fldigi by Dave Freese W1HKJ and the DXLabs suite by Dave Bernstein AA6YQ.
Fldigi-DXLabs Gateway works with the following DXLabs applications.
DXKeeper – Qso’s logged in Fldigi will transfer to DXKeeper when the save qso button is pressed. Ability to lookup previous contacts with the call sign in the Fldigi call sign field.
Commander – Frequency and Mode information is transferred to Fldigi automatically to act as Fldigi’s rig control.
DXView – Call signs entered into Fldigi’s call sign field will trigger a look up in DXView using the call signs information
SpotCollector – When Fldigi-DXLabs gateway is setup in SpotCollector to be the Digital Mode Application, Clicking on spots in SpotCollector will send the spot information to the gateway for setting the correct mode and frequency in Fldigi.
13FldigiTalkSkip Teller, KH6TYTalker program for use with fldigi
14FreeDVFreeDV is a Digital Voice mode for HF radio. You can run FreeDV using a free GUI application for Windows, Linux and OSX that allows any SSB radio to be used for low bit rate digital voice. Alternatively you can buy a SM1000 FreeDV adaptor that allows you to run FreeDV on any HF radio without a PC or sound card.

If you are a hardware or software developer, you can integrate FreeDV into your project using the LGPL licensed FreeDV API.

Speech is compressed down to 700-1600 bit/s then modulated onto a 1.25 kHz wide signal comprised of 16 QPSK carriers which is sent to the Mic input of a SSB radio. The signal is received by an SSB radio, then demodulated and decoded by FreeDV. FreeDV 700C is approaching SSB in it's low SNR performance. At high SNRs FreeDV 1600 sounds like FM, with no annoying analog HF radio noise.

FreeDV was built by an international team of Radio Amateurs working together on coding, design, user interface and testing. FreeDV is open source software, released under the GNU Public License version 2.1. The modems and Codec 2 speech codec used in FreeDV are also open source.
15FSQdigitalZL2AFPFast Simple QSO (chat) mode for HF and VHF
FSQ is a Fast Simple QSO mode designed specifically for HF. It works well under NVIS and sunrise/sunset conditions on the lower bands, and also works well for short skip and grey-line on higher bands. It can also be used on VHF FM, and clearly has a much wider useful range of operating conditions that other more conventional digital modes. FSQ transmission is also well within the capability of micro-controller based devices for low-power propagation transmissions (MEPT and telemetry). The FSQ modulation, coding and FSQCall protocol are publicly disclosed and described, and the software is open source.

FSQ was developed by Con Wassilieff ZL2AFP with the assistance of Murray Greenman ZL1BPU. The first QSO took place between these two on 28th November 2014, and the first Alpha executable release was on 17th December 2014. The source code was released with the Beta version 0.23 on 3rd March 2015. The first US version release (V0.24 RC1 by Bob NW8L) was on 29th March 2015. The first full-package public release was by Bob NW8L on 29 April 2015. A version of fldigi with full FSQ support was released by Dave W1HKJ on 16 July 2015, and includes support for Linux and Mac platforms. The first eight-channel remote telemetry application, by Murray ZL1BPU, went live on June14 2016.

FSQ is intended for fixed frequency (channelized) operation, with dedicated calling frequencies. It isn't intended as a 'tune around to see what you can find' mode!
16JNOS (Win32)

JNOS (Linux)
Maiko Langelaar, VE4KLMJNOS is one of the derivations of a PC program for amateur radio known as NOS. NOS was designed to be a BBS (Bulletin Board System), running on your PC as a regular MS-DOS program or a Linux program, that allows you and others to use and provide email and other services based on IP (Internet Protocol). As you become familiar with it using your personal PC, you become much more aware and familiar with how the Internet works.

You can send email messages via amateur radio (AX.25) or the Internet (SMTP email over IP) or both. Using your own Internet address, combine it with an amateur radio station, and a modem-like piece of hardware called a TNC (Terminal Node Controller), you can pass real Internet email messages over amateur radio.

[See also the book NOSintro -- TCP/IP over Packet Radio by Ian Wade, G3NRW, for a detailed description of NOS]
17MixWMixW 1.45 was a multimode program, which supported 5 modes: SSB, PSK31, RTTY, PACKET, and CW, using a PC soundcard. In this version he also added added the CAT System, World Map, macros, log etc.

Improving MixW 1.45, in 2002 Nick and Denis developed the panoramic spectral display which was incorporated in the program called DigiPan under the ideological support of Howard (KH6TY).
18MMSSTVMakoto Mori, JE3HHTAnalog Slow Scan TV with Windows and Soundcard
WinXP - Vista - Win7
19MMTTYMakoto Mori, JE3HHTRTTY program
20MultiPSKPatrick Lindecker, F6CTEThe Swiss Army Knife of digital communication. Support of many digital protocols and modes
21PROPnetPropNET is an ad-hoc 2-way (and potentially, "more-way") RF-based digital communication network whose activity is reported on the Internet. As participating stations periodically ID and exchange data, they report their activity to an Internet data-collection hub for presentation through this web site.

Participating in the PropNET project can be about...

... innovation! In the USA, FCC rules allow for "Automatically Controlled Digital Stations" (Title 47 CFR Part 97.221) and the PropNET project is helping to define the strategies of such operation against a backdrop of being a good band co-occupant through the application of "Good Amateur Practice".

... realtime communication (automatic or personal)! Some PropNET operators may have invoked "QSO Alert", allowing them to be alerted if their station decodes others attempting to make a keyboard contact with them.

... propagation tracking! The charts on this web site reveal what RF communication circuits are available (and NOT available), in real time and without the inaccuracy of human assessment.

... providing station performance assessment to others! Operators who can't seem to get a response to their "CQ's" can "ping" a PropNET station (by sending a PropNET formatted transmission) and see if they are reported by a PropNET participant (along with an IMD report) on www.PropNET.org.
PropNET is the name given to an innovative project that uses PSK31 to create an RF-based digital peer-to-peer network. Participants simply download PropNetPSK (a Windows program), enter a few station-specific parameters in order to take part.

Most PropNET participants automatically identify themselves over-the-air, typically a few times an hour and pass traffic to other participants. If a receiving PropNET station “catches” (decodes) the transmission, the details are logged locally and the event is plotted on a local map. If the receiving station is connected to the Internet, the “catch” is also reported to a globally accessible website (http://www.PropNET.org). The process repeats over time, resulting in a significant amount of network-exchanged information that can be used for many purposes, including the observation of ones own transmission quality (see the FAQ on IMD).
22PSKMailRein, PA0RPSKmail is a narrow band arq system for use by amateur radio hams via short wave (HF) communication. It does not use a special controller, you just need a computer with a sound card.

The PSKmail server uses the fldigi program as a modem, and can use PSK, MFSK and THOR modes, including the new robust PSK modes which include soft viterbi decoding and interleave to increase immunity to qrm and qrn. The PSKmail client can be configured to use a Java modem or Fldigi (which supports more modes). The operator can choose several modes and speeds when starting a connection, to match channel conditions.

The system uses asymmetric adaptive mode control to use the channel capacity efficiently. When channel quality changes during a connected session the system changes speed to accommodate the new circumstances.
23PuTTY A serial port (and SSH/telnet) client. Very useful debugging tool for sending/receiving CAT commands to/from the radio
24QSSTVLinux-based SSTV program. Handles MMSSTV (Analog) and EasyPal (digital)
25SIM31/SIM63AC4MSim31 is a semi auto, auto mode with a modified Varicode , Certain parts of the transmission are repeated for better BER%.

SIM_PSK is an experimental computer program designed to facilitate basic amateur radio
communications when using a weak signal with the SIM31, a new digimode specially
designed for use on all amateur bands: MF, HF and VHF...

The five characters “SIM31”, stand for “Structured Integrated Message PSK 31 bauds”.
SIM31 is sharing many characteristics of the popular modes such as PSK31 and JT9.
It is designed for doing normal contacts by exchanging full info’s, but moreover, it also allows to establish quite automatic contacts, even under weak signals conditions, with a narrow band using less than 45Hz...
Compared to other digimodes, SIM31 is probably the only one to have a new kind of
automatic functionality:
You can set your software in Automatic mode , and begin calling CQCQ as many times as you want. Afterwards, sim-psk will reply to the call sign who just answered you manually; then, it detects and fills all info’s of the QSO (Name, QTH, LOC, RSQ ...), at the end of QSO, it saves all info’s into the SIM Logbook ....

The program does all that automatically, without any operator assistance...
SIM-PSK can export one or several contacts at once in ADIF format at any time. Then you can upload your ADIF file to eQSL.cc or any other service having an ADiF compatible upload function. It can be done quickly from the program Log menu at the end of your traffic.
Remark : uploading to LoTW must be done independent ly by TQSL as usual..
SIM_PSK also implements the new mode SIM63 running at twice the baud rate of SIM31.
26UIchatAn AX.25 UI based chat application, which allows the use of any modem type with KISS connectivity, including the famous FLDIGI!!

UIChat is patterned after the FSQCall application and provides automated responses based on action characters included in the text of the UI frame.
27UI-ViewRoger Barker, G4IDE (SK)UI-View is an APRS client that runs on Windows. This application differs from most APRS software in that it isn't designed just to be used with TNCs in terminal mode. UI-View also supports TNCs in KISS mode, AGWPE host mode and BPQ host mode. The 32 bit version of UI-View also supports WA8DED/TF host mode, and the variant of it used in the SCS PTC-II and PTC-IIe. The host mode support means that UI-View can be used with a wide range of packet hardware and allows up to 16 RF ports to be used.

It can run as a full-featured internal intelligent digipeater with the TNC in KISS mode, and with modification to the UI-View2.INI file, supports the new WIDEn-N settings, and has full support for connecting to APRS servers on the Internet and running as an IGate or Internet Gateway.
28WSJTJoe Taylor, K1JTThe WSJT project currently includes five programs designed for amateur radio communication using state of the art digital techniques. Typical applications include meteor scatter, EME ("moonbounce"), and QRP communication at HF.

Summary Program Descriptions:
-- WSJT: Modes JTMS, FSK441, ISCAT, JT6M, JT65, JT4, Echo, CW. Optimized for meteor scanner, ionospheric scatter, and EME at VHF/UHF/Microwaves.
-- WSJT-X: Modes JT65, JT9. Primarily for use at HF.
-- MAP65: For EME an VHF and higher frequencies. Implements a panoramic, polarization-matching receiver for JT65.
-- WSPR: Probe potential propagation paths using low-power transmissions.
-- WSPR-X: Experimental version of WSPR, including the slow mode WSPR-15.

WSJT is a computer program used for weak-signal radio communication between amateur radio operators. The program was initially written by Joe Taylor, K1JT, but is now open source and is developed by a small team. The digital signal processing techniques in WSJT make it substantially easier for amateur radio operators to employ esoteric propagation modes, such as high speed meteor scatter and moonbounce.

The software carries a general emphasis on weak-signal operation and advanced DSP techniques; however, the communication modes rely upon different ionospheric propagation modes and may be used on many different bands.

-- FSK441, introduced in 2001 as the first communications mode included with WSJT, is designed to support communication using streaks of radio-reflecting ions created in the ionosphere by the trails of meteors entering the Earth's atmosphere. The bursts of signal created by such trails are commonly referred to as “pings”, due to their characteristic sound. Such pings may be as short as a tenth of a second and carry enough information to complete at least one stage of a contact. FSK441 employs multi-frequency shift keying using four tones, at a data rate of 441 baud. Because of the choice of character codes in the protocol, it is self-synchronizing and does not require an explicit synchronization tone. FSK441 is generally used on the 2-meter and 70-centimeter amateur bands. Contacts may be made at almost any time (that is, a meteor shower is not required to be in progress) at distances of up to 1400 miles (2250 km).

When transmitted messages include at least one space, the FSK441 decoding algorithm uses that space character as a syncword for zero-overhead synchronization.

-- JT6M introduced in late 2002,[3] is intended for meteor scatter and other ionospheric scattering of signals, and is especially optimized for the 6-meter band. The mode also employs multiple frequency-shift keying, but at 44 tones. One of the tones is a synchronization tone, leaving 43 tones to carry data (one tone per character in the character set, which includes alphanumerics and some punctuation). The symbol rate is 21.53 baud; the actual data rate as encoded for transmit is 14.4 characters per second. The mode is known for sounding "a bit like piccolo music".

-- JT65, developed and released in late 2003, is intended for extremely weak but slowly varying signals, such as those found on troposcatter or Earth-Moon-Earth (EME, or "moonbounce") paths. It can decode signals many decibels below the noise floor in a 2500 Hz band (note that SNR in a 2500 Hz band is approximately 28 dB lower than SNR in a 4 Hz band, which is closer to the channel bandwidth of an individual JT65 tone), and can often allow amateurs to successfully exchange contact information without signals being audible to the human ear. Like the other modes, multiple-frequency shift keying is employed; unlike the other modes, messages are transmitted as atomic units after being compressed and then encoded with a process known as forward error correction (or "FEC"). The FEC adds redundancy to the data, such that all of a message may be successfully recovered even if some bits are not received by the receiver. (The particular code used for JT65 is Reed-Solomon.) Because of this FEC process, messages are either decoded correctly or not decoded at all, with very high probability. After messages are encoded, they are transmitted using MFSK with 65 tones.[7]

Operators have also begun using the JT65 mode for contacts on the HF bands, often using QRP (very low transmit power); while the mode was not originally intended for such use, its popularity has resulted in several new features being added to WSJT in order to facilitate HF operation.

-- JT9, intended for MF and HF use, was introduced in an experimental version of WSJT, known as WSJT-X. It uses the same logical encoding as JT65, but modulates to a 9-FSK signal. With 1-minute transmission intervals, JT9 occupies less than 16 Hz bandwidth. JT9 also has versions designed for longer transmission intervals of 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes or 30 minutes. These extended versions take increasingly less bandwidth and permit reception of even weaker signals. [10]
29WSQZL2AFP
ZL1BPU
WSQ
A Weak Signal QSO mode for LF/MF
WSQ - a Weak Signal QSO mode for LF/MF. Like DominoEX and JASON, it uses Incremental Frequency Keying (IFK), making it moderately drift-proof and easy to tune. Unlike WSPR or THOR, it uses no error correction (DominoEX has already demonstrated clearly that error correction isn't necessary when using slow IFK), and while the baud rate is even slower than JASON, each symbol* carries much more information, taking the typing speed up to 5 WPM or better.

* SYMBOL: The smallest unique signalling entity which exists for a time in a digital transmission. (For example a Morse dot or dot-space).

A new sensitive waterfall display is used for tuning. Clearly, if you can't see to tune a signal, it makes contact fairly difficult. On the WSQ display you can easily see signals at -25dB SNR, making tuning reasonably straightforward, although some patience is required.
WSQ uses 33 tones, spaced 1.953125Hz apart, resulting in a signal bandwidth of 64.4Hz, including the keying sidebands (bandwidth assessed according to ITU-R SM.1138). The modulation is constant amplitude, phase coherent MFSK with 2.048 second symbols (spacing 4/T), using IFK coding with 32 frequency differences. This means that each symbol carries enough information for all lower case letters to be expressed in just one symbol, which greatly enhances the speed.

 


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